User manual for accounts and staking on Centrifuge

I have created a user friendly manual, explaining the basic concepts of staking with visualizations and simple steps.

It covers topics like:

  • What is the Polkadot{.js} browser extension
  • What is the Polkadot portal
  • How to create an account
  • How to stake
  • And a lot more

The manual covers the most frequently asked questions about accounts and staking on Centrifuge.

If you’re looking to get started with staking but have found it all too challenging, this manual will help you understand things a bit better.

The manual is best to read on a laptop/desktop - the pictures might be small on a phone.

Any feedback is welcome.

You can view/download the manual here:


awesome Rhano, thanks a lot

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Cheers mate! Just ask if you need something clarified.

sweet as Rhano, will do

Hi Rhano, thanks a lot for this awesome work.


You, sir, are a credit to mankind :slight_smile:

I have been so frustrated with staking on the Polkadot portals… it is the toughest in the entire digital asset space. Your manual was god-sent.



I appreciate your kind words mate! And I am happy to hear that you find it useful.

See it as birthday present :grinning:

Happy birthday :birthday:

Thank you for the wishes!

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Thanks for the manual, I read it and have 2 quick questions:

  1. What is the difference between the Staking Overview screen and the Targets screen? I see in Targets, the Total Stake is always the same as the Own Stake, not clear on why, even though they have >1 nominator. Are Targets earning rewards or only those listed on Overview?
  2. Just to confirm, if staking towards an oversubscribed validator, in order to get in, one needs to stake more than the amount shown in red?

thank you

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You’re welcome mate. To answer your questions:

  1. The main difference between those two tabs is, that in the Staking Overview, you can click on each validator individually to see their nominators, including the nominators’ stake (which is the information you want to know to figure out how much (more) CFG you need to stake in order to get rewards from a particular validator). The Target tab gives you more information about the APY for validators but note that the calculation of staking rewards takes many factors into consideration, so you can’t trust it 100%. But both tabs display a lot of the same information though.

  2. Yes, that is correct. You need to have more staked than the amount in shown in red but ALSO more than the nominator listed number 128 on the list. Then you will take their place and push them down the list so they will not receive rewards from that validator.

Hope that clears things out a bit.

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Thanks. Just gave it a go and bonded per your suggestion, however, its as an inactive nomination. I presume the era has to close before this becomes active, or am I incorrect?


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Yes, your stake will become active in the next era, and you will get your first rewards in the era after that.

As illustrated here:


The era closed, and now I see another message, what does this mean? Am I earning rewards?


Hi prankstr25.

Check out this blog post how to track your staking rewards

It seems that this particular validator didn’t get enough nominations (CFG) to get in the active validator set. Just like nominators compete to be in the top 128 to get rewards from a validator, validators are also competing to be in the top 55 in the validators list.

Only the top 55 validators with the most CFG staked will get in the active validator’s list to get rewards. Your validator currently seems to not be in the top 55 - that is what the warning is saying. So no, you are not earning rewards right now - try nominating other validators instead.

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Thanks @Rhano and @Tjure07 for your help, I have been staking for about a month now, went in to check the stats, and it looks like my annualized return is <10%. Trying to figure out what is wrong, as I see a return of >20% displayed in the UI, would you mind helping with a couple questions:

  1. @Rhano mentioned that my nominated validator may not have enough nominations and may not be earning, are validators that are earning displayed in the Targets or the Staking Overview screens, I think there are some differences there?
  2. In the Targets screen, there is a Return column, is this cumulative return since that nominator started, or yearly or some other?
  3. The commission that the validator charges, I presume its based on the payout, so if the returns APY is 23%, the commission to validator would be 2.3%, correct?
  4. Is there an easy way in Subscan or elsewhere to see which validator the reward payment is coming from? Spent some time trying to match the Rewards Sender to one of the validators I am nominating, but was not able to (could be a mistake on my part).

Thank you so much for your help!

Hi @prankstr25, to answer your questions:

  1. You can change the settings so it displays what you want to see. See the screenshot below as an example.

  2. I believe that the numbers in the “return” column displays the current apy. However, note that the apy fluctuates and these numbers are not 100% accurate as the actual apy depends on several factors, e.g. validator’s commission fee, validator’s own stake, total stake in the pool, your stake as a proportion out of the whole stake, validator’s era points etc. Since all of these constantly change, the apy will never stay the same and thus difficult to display an exact number.

  3. The commission fee is set by the validator (they can change it when they want) and the way it works is that once the validator receives their reward every era, they first take out their commission fee and THEN distribute the remaining among the validators, which is done pro-rata (your proportion of the rewards = your stake/total stake in the pool)
    This visualization pretty much sums it up:

  4. Unfortunately, I am not familiar with a way to see specifically which validators the rewards come from in Subscan.

Hopefully that answers (some of) your questions.


In addition to @Rhano’s answers:

  1. Unfortunately Subscan only shows in the “Reward&Slash” tab the sum of all paid rewards. An easy filtering function per validator is not available. A better option is probably the Polkadot.portal (Staking, Payouts) which shows at least the pending payouts per validator.
    Maybe the Developer-section provides more reports (RPC calls or Extrinsics)

Thank you both once again, appreciate it.

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I have another question, not sure if this is a result of recent migration, but we have stopped accumulating staking rewards about 2 weeks ago. I see the same amount staked and active nominations, but rewards are not coming in. Was I supposed to make do anything in light of the recent migration?